Past Events


2014 to Present


2021, Izmir. ORPHEUS Virtual Workshop On Phd Supervision In Biomedicine And Health Sciences. Dokuz Eylül, 11 March 2021

Course consists of lectures, structured group exercises and plenary discussion. Course to be given by Prof. Gül Güner Akdogan (Izmir University of Economics) and Prof. Michael Mulvany (Aarhus University, Denmark) together with two facilitators from Dokuz Eylül.

The course is for 24 participants that splits into two groups for the group work. Each group will be led by
one of the lecturers and one of the local facilitators.

9:00 Introduction from the Graduate School

9:10 Overview of course by course lecturers

9:30 Module 1 (1¾ hour)

  • Lecture: Professional conduct in supervision (30 min)
  • Group work (60 min)
    • 1.1 What is the role of the supervisor?
    • 1.2 Matching supervisor and candidate expectations
    • 1.3 What makes a good supervisor?
    • 1.4 Tasks for the supervisor

Wrap-up (15 min)

11:15 Coffee

11:30 Module 2 (1¾ hour)

  • Lecture: Communication between supervisor and PhD candidate (30 min)
    Group work (60 min)
    • 2.1 The supervisor-candidate (weekly) meeting.
    • 2.2 Providing text feedback
    • 2.3 Approaches to the supervisor meeting (active listening)
    • 2.4 Case study: Getting a student back on track

Wrap-up (15 min)

13:15 Lunch

14:00 Module 3 (1¾ hour)

  • Lecture: Conflict management (30 min)
  • Group work (60 min)
    • 3.1 Case study: Promoting responsible conduct in research,
    • 3.2 Case study: Conflict management

3.3 Case study: Authorship

Wrap-up (15 min)

15:45 General discussion (60 min)

16:45 Concluding remarks

2020, Istanbul. 3rd International Nursing Conference
2019, Marmara. ORPHEUS workshop on PhD Supervision in Biomedicine and Health Sciences
2018, Izmir. Workshop On Phd Supervision In Biomedicine And Health Sciences: ORPHEUS Perspective


2017, Rehovot. New Horizons in Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Education
2017, Dubrovnik

We are glad to announce ORPHEUS ETHICS IN SCIENCE MODULE at DIBSS / Dubrovnik International Bioethics Summer School

Venue: Inter-University Centre Dubrovnik

Dates: 19-25 June, 2017

Please find more information here:

2017, Marmara. International Meeting on Education and Research in Health Sciences


2016, Ankara. Yok Workshop On PhD Education: New Horizons
2016, Istanbul. ORPHEUS Symposium, Better Research Through PhD Education In Health Sciences. Koc University,

February 2016, (ORPHEUS-Koc University Symposium in Istanbul)

ORPHEUS-Koç University Symposium in Istanbul

A one-day symposium entitled “Better Research Through PhD Education in Health Sciences” jointly organized by ORPHEUS and Koç University (An ORPHEUS member institution) was held in Istanbul on 22 February 2016. Forty-nine participants, mainly academics involved in graduate education in health sciences, from Ankara, Istanbul, İzmir, Kayseri, Kocaeli, Manisa, Sakarya, and Zonguldak were gathered at ANAMED (Koç University Research Centre for Anatolian Civilizations) a lavishly renovated building at the heart of the commercial district. Koç University Graduate School of Health Sciences and School of Nursing took charge of the local organization teamed up with Lale Büyükgönenç, Hakan S. Orer, Şeyda Özcan and Begüm Yalçın.

Ihsan Solaroğlu and Lale Büyükgönenç, directors of the Graduate School and the School of Nursing, respectively, were among the participants as well as the President Umran Inan of Koç University and ORPHEUS ambassador for Turkey, Feyza Arıcıoğlu. Gül Güner Akdoğan, Robert Harris, Zdravko Lacković and Michael J. Mulvany from ORPHEUS, Fahrettin Keleştemur from Turkish National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Hakan S. Orer from Koç University were the symposium speakers. This is the first gathering devoted to PhD education where the President of Turkish NIH, a newly founded institution to fund research in allied health sciences in Turkey meets ORPHEUS and Graduate School representatives. An initiative that reflects the determination of the Koç University to build PhD Programs based on sound scientific research.

Participants enjoyed in-depth talks and found ample time to discuss several issues related to PhD education ranging from creation of an institutional research environment to research ethics and implementation of ORPHEUS standards. This was also an opportunity for ORPHEUS to outreach several universities located in Anatolian heartland that have not been a member yet.

Symposium Program (in order of appearance)
PhD Training for the 21st Century
Prof. Dr. Robert Harris, Acting President, ORPHEUS
Karolinska Institute

Using a common understanding of PhD training to Improve Quality
Prof. Dr. Michael J. Mulvany
University of Aarhus

Turkish National Institutes of Health: A New Vision for Promoting Research in Health Sciences
Prof. Dr. Fahrettin Keleştemur, President
Turkish National Institutes of Health

Role of Orpheus in Developing Ethical Standards
Prof. Dr. Zdravko Lacković, President (Ex Officio), ORPHEUS
University of Zagreb

PhD Education in Health Sciences in Turkey
Prof. Dr. Hakan Sedat Orer
Koç University

Obtaining ORPHEUS label: Dokuz Eylul University Experience
Prof. Dr. Gül Güner, Gen. Secretary, ORPHEUS
Dokuz Eylul University

2016, Istanbul. ORPHEUS workshop at 7th European Congress of Pharmacology, 29th June 2016, Istanbul, Turkey
2016, San Diego, USA, Experimental Biology, April 2nd-6th

US ORPHEUS ambassador Joey Barnett arranged a workshop entitled ‘ORPHEUS – DEVELOPING BEST PRACTICES FOR GRADUATE ED IN EUROPE’ during which he and ORPHEUS President Bob Harris gave lectures about graduate training programmes in the US and Europe, respectively. 

The workshop was a great success and was an important occasion to spread the ORPHEUS philosophy of Best Practices in Doctoral Education.

Joey also arranged for Bob to meet with a range of senior executives in the FASEB and ASPET organisations, as well as the head and other representatives of NIGMS at NIH, Washington.

San Diego programme

Gothenburg EUA Workshop And Focus Group Discussion 19th Of March 2015 On Teaching Research Ethics In Doctoral Education

Ana Borovečki

On the 19th of March 2015 EUA decided to hold workshop and focus group discussion on teaching research ethics in doctoral education at University of Gothenburg in Sweden.

Swedish lecturers were Professor Claudia Falke from Gothenburg University , Professor Steffan Eden, member of Central Board of Ethics in Stockholm and Thomas Jurgenson from EUA.

Thomas Jurgenson pointed out that EUA has no expertise in ethics so far so they decided to organize this workshop and focus group discussion. He pointed out that nowadays big money is involved in research and that universities are under scrutiny where performance, innovation and research conduct are of importance. Data protection is also these days focus of discussions. EUA is currently lobbying for changes in the new EU directive on data protection in order to prevent changes that could hamper research efforts in the future. International collaboration can also present problems especially when it comes to informed consent, respect for individuals, and understanding of plagiarism, co-authorship and citation. There is also performance pressure-temptation to go for smaller publishable unit. However, little incentive for replication, leads to less credible results.

The participants in the focus groups had to answer the following questions: Is research ethics part of good research practice and vice versa? Who is drafting ethics guidelines and codes at your institution? How is research ethics regulated at your institution? How does your institution ensure that doctoral graduates are able to do research in an ethically responsible way (and does it work?)

The institutions that participated in the discussions were: University of Zagreb, School of Medicine (Croatia), ORPHEUS, University of Vienna (Austria), Open University of Catalonia (Spain,) University of Liege (Belgium), University of Aalto (Finland), University of Barcelona ( Spain), University of Iasi (Romania), Conference of Western Swiss Universities, University of Basel (Switzerland), University of Gent (Belgium), Wageningen University (the Netherlands), Humboldt University (Germany),University of Gothenburg ( Sweden), Uppsala University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden) and Anglia Ruskin University, (UK).

After focus groups discussions participants were divided into groups which had to give answers to different questions.

Here are the questions and participants answers:

What does the new generation need to know?

-Basics ( plagiarism, fabrication falsification etc.); coping with new technologies and using it in research, self-plagiarism; why training is important in ethics of research; recognize, reflect, navigate grey areas; many tensions and interests threatening integrity ( pressure on science, sponsor interests); changing conceptions of private, vulnerability of “truth” ;,interpreting regulations; where to find help and support; getting way from qualitative to quantitative research paradigms ; why ethics is fundamental to research and part of transferable skills ; they need to know about accountability of their research; getting reliable support , knowledge of self-consciousness and communicational skills; awareness of stakeholders of what you are doing

How should they prove it?

-Show ethics wariness; have critical mind; not taking routine practices for granted; debating the issues; discussing things with colleagues and supervisors; reflect on the issues of ethics in their thesis; be aware of authorship issues; be able to apply things that they have learnt about ethics in research in everyday practice; feeling confident; writing ethical guidelines

Who has the responsibility that research conducted by doctoral candidates is done ethically?

-The candidate, supervisors, supervising committee, head of department, faculty, university leaders, ministry of science and education , reviewers of manuscripts, scientific community, society, practitioners, researcher, good teachers, legal experts

What institutional structures are needed to ensure research ethics in doctoral education?

-for mandatory ethics training for PhD students and supervisors; for creating and open-minded and critical environment and ombudsman or ad –hoc body or standing committee to address ethics issues; for having clear procedures, for institution of ethics ambassadors (senior managers and researchers); they need to be connection between inter- institutional procedures, regional level and national level procedures and guidelines; for sharing the importance of ethics training in an attractive way

The outcomes of the workshop will be further discussed at EUA conferences in Munich.

2014, Cape Town, South Africa, ORPHEUS PhD Standards: Bridging PhD Programs To Promote Global Collaboration


  • Do we need global standards for PhD education: Prof. Zdravko Lackovic 
  • ORPHEUS-AMSE- WFME Standards for PhD education:   Prof. Michael Mulvany 
  • Do we need international Standards:  US position Prof.  Joey Barnett 
  • Do we need international Standards:  Indian position Prof. Arunabha Ray 
  • Do we need international Standards:  South African position Prof. Tiaan Brink 

The workshop reviewed PhD education in a variety of countries with a view to determining whether a consensus can be obtained about the expected outcomes of PhD education, the content of PhD programmes and the manner in which PhD education is organized. Speakers were be asked to relate their PhD programmes to the standards recommended by ORPHEUS (Organisation for PhD education in biomedicine and health sciences in the European system, The workshop showed that although there are substantial differences in PhD programmes between countries, large areas of agreement could be identified.

2014, Tbilisi

ORPHEUS Georgian Workshop 18 March, 2014 Tbilisi ORPHEUS Workshop was convened by ORPHEUS member university David Tvildiani Medical University (DTMU) in Tbilisi, Georgia in the presence of ORPHEUS President Zdravko Lackovic





2013, Antalya.. 4th-7th November 2013, ORPHEUS vice-president gave EPHAR plenary lecture entitled “Standards in PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in Europe”, Antalya, Turkey

  • ORPHEUS vice-president gave EPHAR plenary lecture entitled “Standards in PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in Europe” at 22ndNational Pharmacological Congress of the Turkish Pharmacological Society.

2013, Astrahan. 8th May 2013, ORPHEUS EC member Konstantin Gurevich from Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry visited Astrahan State Medical Academia (ASMA)

  • ORPHEUS EC member Konstantin Gurevich from Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry visited Astrahan State Medical Academia (ASMA) (, which is south of Russian Federation (Volga-river Area – Astrahan region). He had had a meeting with rector of Astrahan State Medical Academia professor Halil Mengalievich Galimzyanov (photo) . Konstantin Gurevich presented ORPHEUS documents and discussed ORPEHUS membership.  

2013, Baku. 20th-25th May 2013, ORPHEUS Vice-president represents ORPHEUS at EURODOC conference on New Challenges in the European Area: Young Scientist’s 1st International Baku Forum 2013

  • Baku, Azerbaijan, 20-25 May 2013. The conference attracted about 300 PhD candidates of which about 150 from from Azerbaijan.The purpose of the conference was to promote the cooperation between young scientists and researchers from different European countries and disciplines. ORPHEUS Vice-president gavethe opening talk on “Doctoral candidate involvement in setting standards for doctoral training”. The workshop has strengthened the contacts between ORPHEUS and EURODOC. Further details on

2013, Beijing. 8th May 2013, ORPHEUS President and Vice President, on invitation from Peking University Health Science Center visited Peking University

  • ORPHEUS President and Vice President, Zdravko Lackovic Michael John Mulvany on invitation from Peking University Health Science Center visited Peking University.The meeting was held at Office of International Cooperation. From Chinese side the present were KE Yang – Executive Vice President of Peking University; Executive Vice President of health Science Centre, DUAN Liping – Vice President; Executive Vice President of Graduate School, SUN Qiudan Director of Office of International Cooperation and others. Professors Lackovic and Mulvany presented ORPHEUS and European Standards of PhD Education. Chinese official presented Health Science Center, regulations of PhD in People Republic of China, and two PhD programs. Chinese officials expressed interest to participate in ORPHEUS activities, especially in creating global standards for PhD education.

    PhD Candidates Xuezhu Li and Zifang Zhao were excellent guides trough Beijing.

2013, Boston. 23rd April 2013, ORPHEUS Vice-president represents ORPHEUS at workshop at Experimental Biology 2013

  • Boston, USA, 23 April 2013. ORPHEUS Vice-president, Michael Mulvany, presented the ORPHEUS PhD standards at a workshop arranged by the American Society of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and the British Pharmacological Society at the Experimental Biology congress held in Boston.The workshop was entitled:

    The future of PhD education in biomedicine: US and European perspectives. There were contributions from Joey Barnett (Univ. Vanderbilt, USA), Nick Goulding (William Harvey Institute, UK), Michael Mulvany (ORPHEUS) and Alison Hall

    Deputy Division Director, Division of Training, Workforce Development, and Diversity, National Institute of General Medical Sciences). The workshop has strengthened the foundation for increased collaboration between the US, UK and ORPHEUS regarding the development of international standards for PhD training in biomedicine and health sciences. 

2013, Dublin. 14th-15th May 2013, Irish EU Presidency Conference on Research Careers & Mobility conference, Dublin, Ireland

  • This conference provided the opportunity to gauge progress in achieving the core objectives of the European Research Area to make Europe a more attractive location for researchers through better career opportunities.The conference discussed these objectives and how to make further advances through the interaction of researchers and policy makers. Through interactive workshops and discussion fora, delegates developed practical initiatives to help Europe overcome the well-known barriers to mobility (between countries and/or employment sectors) and to improve the career prospects for researchers. ORPHEUS Vice-president Michael Mulvany gave a workshop talk on “Standards for PhD education”.

2013, Dubrovnik. 24th-26th June 2013, ORPHEUS WORKSHOP AND EDUCATIONAL PACKCAGE „Responsible Conduct in Research“

  • The ORPHEUS workshop was held in Dubrovnik at Interuniversity Centre (IUC) ( with renown international lecturers from the fields of ethics in science and research; Reidar K. Lie University of Bergen, Department of Philosophy, Adjunct Research Fellow, Department of Bioethics Clinical Canter National Institutes of Health, USA and former Head, Unit on International Research Department of Bioethics Clinical Center National Institutes of Health, USA , Henk ten Have, Director and Professor McAnulty College and Graduate School of Liberal Arts Center for Healthcare Ethics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh USA, former Director of the Division of Ethics of Science and Technology at UNESCO.Here is the program of the workshop:

    Day 1 Monday 24th of June 2013

    9.00- 10.30. Ethics in Science ( 2 hours of lectures)- Reidar K. Lie

    10.30-11.00 Coffee Break

    1100.-12.30 Ethics and Scientific Research and NIH ( 2 hours of lectures) – Reidar K. Lie

    12.30-13.30 Lunch Break

    13.30- 15.00 Research and Global Health (2 hours of lectures)- Reidar K. Lie

    15.00-16.30 Practice Examples- How to Teach – Ana Borovečki and Zdravko Lacković ( 2 hours of seminars)

    16.30-16.45- Coffee Break

    16.45-18.15 Round table Discussion- Experiences in Teaching Ethics of Science and Research for PhD Students

    Day 2 Tuesday 25th of June 2013

    9.00- 10.30. Ethics and Global Problems (2 hours of lectures)- Henk ten Have

    10.30-11.00 Coffee Break

    1100.-12.30 UNESCO core curriculum- Henk ten Have (2 hours of lectures)

    12.30-13.30 Lunch Break

    13.30- 16.30 Practice Examples- How to Teach – Ana Borovečki and Zdravko Lacković ( 2 hours of seminars)

    Day 3 Wednesday 26th of June 2013

    9.00- 10.30. (2 hours of tutorials)

    10.30-11.00 Coffee Break

    1100.-12.30 Improving Teaching Skills (2 hours of tutorials)

    12.30-13.30 Lunch Break

    13.30- 15.00 Improving Teaching Skills (2 hours of tutorials)

    15.00-16.30 Improving Teaching Skills (2 hours of tutorials)

    The workshop is collaboration between ORPHEUS, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Duquesne University from Pittsburgh, University of Rijeka Faculty of Law and University of Bergen. The workshop was aimed at educating junior and senior teachers at PhD programs involved in teaching ethics of science. The participants were given UNESCO materials that was specially developed for the teachers of ethics. They also received copies of the manual “Responsible conduct of Research” edited by Ana Borovečki and Zdravko Lacković. They were also provided with information and material regarding publications of the European Science Foundation especially the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity. Participants also had to prepare a short teaching presentation in order to improve their teaching skills.

    Beside lecturers there were 11 participants at the workshop coming from Croatia, Georgia, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Ukraine, and Turkey. Some of the participants especially junior colleagues who were eligible got HESP/OSCE scholarships.

    The organizers are planning to host similar event next year approximately at the same time.

2013, Hanty-Mansiiks. 21st May 2013, ORPHEUS EC member Konstantin Gurevich from Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry visited Hanty-Mansiiks medical Academia (HMGMA)

  • ORPHEUS EC member Konstantin Gurevich from Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry visited Hanty-Mansiiks medical Academia (HMGMA) (, which is far east of Russian Federation (Khanty- Mansi Autonomous Area – Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk, one of the oil reachest region in Russian Federation).He had had a meeting with vice-rector of Hanty-Mansiisk medical academia professor Vladimir Leonidovich Yanin (photo) . Konstantin Gurevich presented ORPHEUS documents. Academia it is interesting to become ORPHEUS members and to make up a working meeting with representativetes of ORPHEUS.

2013, Hradec Kralove.  21st-22nd November 2013, The 10th International Medical Postgraduate Conference in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic

  • Charles University in Hradec Kralove on November 21 -22, 2013 organised The 10th International Medical Postgraduate Conference. ORPHEUS President Zdravko Lackovic was a member of the jury in this unique contest of PhD Candidates. Detailed information can be found on conference web site:,-Foreign-Relations/Meetings/International-Medical-Postgraduate-Conferences/Message by Dean Professor Miroslav Cervinka:


    Dear friends and colleagues,

    I would like to welcome you to the 10th International Medical Postgraduate Conference in Hradec Králové. The conference has been progressing well since its inception, and over the years it has turned into a real international meeting. We are proud to welcome participants not only from the Czech and Slovak Republics, but also from Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. I personally believe that the position of this conference is well established and it is a standard part of our activities.

    The first obvious reason for this conference is the opportunity to compare achieved results, to present one’s own data and learn from others. Nevertheless, we consider this particular meeting of postgraduate students in biomedicine also very important for the international harmonization of PhD studies in the European area. This harmonization is currently one of the most important goals of several international organisations, with ORPHEUS (Organisation for PhD Education in Biomedicine Health Sciences in the European System) being one of the dominant players in this area. We are proud to be an active partner in this endower.

    Another important reason for organizing this meeting is the opportunity for direct personal contacts. Nowadays, the electronic world is overloaded with information. You can find all the latest news, the latest publications, hypotheses and scientific results at various websites. However, this also means that an essential human quality of scientific communication is disappearing. Actually, each piece of information is more valuable if it is accompanied by a personal point of view, a direct contact or a personal acquaintance. Personal contacts open the world not only to electronic data but also to direct statements, open discussions and publications filled with personal experience.

    Dear participants, take advantage of this occasion not only to learn the news in other medical fields but also to think about the bits of knowledge in other medical areas which can be valuable for you and your postgraduate work. Though there is only “one medicine,” the mutual overlapping of its disciplines can result in great benefits for all.

    Those of you evaluated as the best by an expert panel of judges will receive a financial award, yet this should be considered secondary. I am convinced that the idea of our meeting is similar to the idea behind the Olympic Games – winning is not the most important thing. Taking part, learning scientific news, and above all meeting new colleagues and friends is of the utmost importance. If we succeed in this, the conference has fulfilled its purpose.

    I wish you all the best!

    Prof. Miroslav Červinka, M.D., PhD.

    Dean, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové

    Charles University in Prague 

2013, Karaganda. 17th February – 21st March 2013, ORPHEUS President Zdravko Lackovic at Medical University of Karaganda

  • ORPHEUS President Zdravko Lackovic was visiting Karaganda Medical University (KMU). Kazakhstan. Beside presenting ORPHEUS, to colleagues from Karaganda and some other Kazakhstan centers he had a lecture at conference on Evidence Based Medicine, and give several lectures to PhD and Master students on introduction of science. At the end of his stay Professor Lackovic prepared critical  report for the Faculty Board of KMU with suggestions how to improve research activity, visibility of research at KMU and how to organize and improve PhD Program.

2013, Krakow. 29th-30th November 2013, ORPHEUS Workshop on clinical PhD, ”Research at the bed side”, Krakow, Poland

  • Jagiellonian University Medical College, Conference organizer: Prof. Jadwiga Mirecka and Zdravko LackovicThe workshop covered in particular: (1) Organisation of PhD program for clinical MDs, (2) Type of „clinical“ publications suitable for PhD thesis (3) Multidisciplinary character of most clinical research: who is the author of a Thesis? Who is the mentor?

2013, London. 17th September 2013, ORPHEUS vice-president represents ORPHEUS at conference on the future of the UK PhD, London

  • ORPHEUS vice-president represents ORPHEUS at conference on the future of the UK PhD arranged by the Society of Biology, the Biochemical Society and the British Pharmacological Society. Participants included representatives for UK graduate schools as well as representatives for BBSRC, QAA, MRC, Wellcome Trust, HEFCE, the Biochemical Society, the British Pharmacological Society, the Society of Biology. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the UK PhD in the light of developments in PhD training in Continental Europe. Topics included: What are the advantages to the UK PhD training model? Are there any disadvantages?; Do Biomedical PhD’s require their own standards distinct from other PhD’s e.g. physics?; How do the UK PhD training schemes match the ORPHEUS model?; Are there any other available models e.g. LERU guideline?; What advantages would standardisation bring?; What type of training should we be offering PhD students?; How do we ensure the quality of the PhD? E.g. untrained examiners; Are there any improvements to be made to current programmes?; How do organisations use their PhD programmes strategically?; What roles does industry play in PhD training?

2013, Luxembourg. 9th-10th September 2013, ORPHEUS vice-president gave plenary lecture entitled “PhD candidate involvement in setting standards for PhD training”, Luxembourg

  • ORPHEUS vice-president gave plenary lecture entitled “PhD candidate involvement in setting standards for PhD training” at annual “Life Sciences PhD Days”, Université du Luxembourg conference arranged by the PhD students of Doctoral School in Systems and Molecular Biomedicine and supported by the doctoral school.

2013, Nice. 11th-13th October 2013, ORPHEUS vice-president gave plenary lecture entitled “The PhD: A tale of two cultures. The influence of PhD students”, Nice, France

  • ORPHEUS vice-president gave plenary lecture entitled “The PhD: A tale of two cultures. The influence of PhD students” at 17th annual conference of the European Council for Cardiovascular Research.

2013, Ottawa. 22nd October 2012, Workshop, Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada (AFMC), Ottawa. Michael Mulvany and Roland Jonsson from ORPHEUS held workshop

  • Workshop, Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada (AFMC), Ottawa. 08:00-13:00Chair: Dr Andrew Watson, The University of Western Ontario
    • Michael Mulvany and Roland Jonsson from ORPHEUS: Organisation for PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in the European System “ Internationalisation of PhD standards”. (90 min)
    • Break out group discussions on ORPHEUS proposal regarding PhD standards
    • Reports and general discussion from break out groups


    • Dr Brian Bennett Queens University
    • Dr Elyse Bissonnette Laval University
    • Dr George Fantus University of Toronto
    • Dr Howard Feldman University of British Columbia
    • Mr Irving Gold (AFMC)
    • Dr Edward Kroeger University of Manitoba
    • Dr Marianna Newkirk McGill University
    • Dr Peter Nickerson University of Manitoba
    • Dr Hanne Ostergaard University of Alberta
    • Ms Natalie Russ (AFMC)
    • Dr Andrew Watson The University of Western Ontario
    • Dr Gerald Zamboni University of Calgary

2013, Pécs. 16th May 2013, ORPHEUS President at Interdisciplinar Doctoral Conference – IDK2013

  • ORPHEUS President prof Zdravko Lackovic gave a talk on ORPEHUS history, presence and future at Interdisciplinar Doctoral Conference – IDK2013 organised by the Doctoral Student Association of the University of Pécs

2013, Warsaw. 20th-25th May 2013, ORPHEUS President and Vice-president represent ORPHEUS at sixth EUA-CDE annual conference

  • The conference attracted about 300 participants.The purpose of the conference was to discuss the topic: From „Student to Research, are we on the right track?“ The general consensus was positive, but concerns were raised as to whether the goal of doctoral training was sufficiently defined. The Vice-president gave a short talk on whether a portfolio describing activities not directly related to the PhD project should be included in assessing whether a PhD should be awarded. Other topics included „Quality and internationalisation” And “Supervision and personal development”. Further details on

2013, Zagreb. 21st September 2013, ORPHEUS workshop on PhD education at 7th Croatian Congress of Pharmacology, Zagreb, Croatia

  • ORPHEUS workshop on PhD education at 7th Croatian Congress of Pharmacology was organised in Zagreb by Zdravko Lackovic on the behalf of the Croatian Pharmacological Society. Paricipants: PhD candidates and professors of Zagreb and other health science schools from Croatia. Speakers: Zdravko Lackovic ORPHEUS President., Michael John Mulvany ORPHEUS Vice President and Peter Holzer dean of Doctoral Studies, Medical University of Graz.

2012, Aarhus. 20th-21st September 2012, High level dialogue meeting

  • This meeting brought together rectors of Edinburgh and Aarhus University together with the European Commission, and several other organizations such as LERU, VITAE and ORPHEUS. The meeting agreed that although there are differences between Scandinavian and UK PhD programmes, the intended outcomes were similar: that PhD graduates should be trained researchers at the highest level, and that PhD training should provide the competencies needed for employment either within or outside of academia.Meeting communique: see

    Dorothy Kelly, Executive Board Chair, The Coimbra Group; David Gani, Governor, The Career Development Organisation and founding member of the Scottish Researcher Careers Coordination Forum; Alexandra Bitusikova, Vice-Rector for Research, Matej Bel University in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia; Peter van der Hijden, DG Research and Innovation, European Commission; Zdravko Lackovic, President, ORPHEUS; Vaclav Hampl, Rector, Charles University; Slobodan Radičev, President EURO-DOC; David Bogle, Headof University College London’s Graduate School and chair of LERU’s Doctoral Studies Community; Katrien Maes, Chief Policy Officer, LERU; Janet Metcalfe, Chair and HEAD of VITAE; Timothy O’Shea, Principal and Vice-Chancellor, University of Edinburgh; Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rector, Aarhus University and Vice-Chair, EUA; Lise Wogensen Bach, Vice-Dean, Aarhus University; Johnny Laursen, Head of the Graduate School of Arts, Aarhus University; Mary Bownes, Senior Vice Principal External Engagement, University of Edinburgh; Jeremy Bradshaw, Dean of Postgraduate Taught & International, University of Edinburgh. Observers: Jon Turner, Director, Institute for Academic Development, University of Edinburgh; Michael Mulvany, Vice President at Orpheus and professor, Aarhus University; Kristian Thorn, Deputy University Director, AU Research and Talent, Aarhus University; Kirsten Wisborg, Head of Talent Unit, Health, AU Research and Talent at Health, Aarhus University; Jeppe Dørup Olesen, Head of Central Talent Unit, AU Research and Talent, Aarhus University.

2012, Brisbane. 5th October 2012, PhD workshop, University of Queensland, Brisbane

  • This workshop drew together Heads of graduate programmes at University of Queensland where in particular the question of the employability of PhD graduates was discussed.Chair: Prof. Zlatko Skrbis, Dean of the UQ Graduate School.
    • Michael Mulvany, Aarhus: PhD education from a European perspective with particular emphasis on the key matters from within the ORPHEUS-AMSE-WFME report.
    • Discussion

    Invited participants:

    Conrad Sernia; Lisbeth Grondahl; Wally Thomas; Melissa Brown; Zlatko Skrbis; Alastair McEwan; Nicholas Fisk; Brandon Wainwright; Perry Bartlett; Jodi Clyde-Smith; Matthew Brown; Alan Lopez; Catherine Turner; David Wilkinson; Doune Macdonald; Laurence Walsh; Louise Hickson; Nick Shaw; Jason Connor; Keith Grimwood; Matti Lang; Murray Mitchell; Peter Warfe; Robert Bush; Angela White; Bruce Abernethy; Caroline Gaus; Christine McClintock; David Jenkins; Deirdre McLaughlin; Diann Eley; Greg Rice; Gwendolen Jull; Judith Greer; Kim Seow; Linda Worrall; Marie-Odile Parat; Michelle Paez-Kirkland; Monique Doyle; Remo Ostini; Sharon Doyle; Stephan Riek; Sue Lau

2012, Dublin. 11th-13th January 2012, EUA-CDE, Dublin

  • M. Mulvany participated on behalf of ORPHEUS.

2012, Glasgow. 5th-8th September 2012, Symposium “PhD in immunology”

  • Symposium, “PhD in immunology”. 18:00-19:30.This workshop discussed the development of European PhD programmes in immunology and the standards to be expected.Chairs: Seppo Meri (Helsinki) and Catherine Sautès-Fridman (Paris)
    • Introduction by chairs (15 min)
    • Zdravko Lackovic (ORPHEUS President, Zagreb): ORPHEUS Standards as a tool to improve the quality of PhD programmes(15 min)
    • Michael Mulvany (ORPHEUS Vice President, Aarhus): ORPEHUS Standards as the answer to crisis of PhD degree (15 min)
    • Ronald Jonsson (Chair of ORPHEUS2012, Bergen): Evaluation of PhD programmes(15 > min)
    • Hannes Stockinger (Chair of ORPHEUS2010, Vienna): Importance of collaboration and networking (15 min)
    • Discussion (15 min)

2012, Granada. 17th-20th July 2012, ORPHEUS Workshop “Standards for PhD education in Biomedicine”, Granada, Spain

  • This workshop discussed the development of European PhD programmes in pharmacology and the standards to be expected.Chairs: Nick Goulding (London) + Roland Jonsson (Bergen)
    • Introduction (5 min) –  chairmen
    • PhD programmes in Spain (15 min) – Dolores Prieto (Madrid)
    • PhD programmes in Germany (15 min) – Katrin Offe (Munich)
    • PhD programmes in Former Eastern Europe (15 min) – Zdravko Lackovic (Zagreb)
    • ORPHEUS-AMSE- WFME Standards for PhD education (20 min) – Michael Mulvany (Aarhus)
    • Discussion (20 min)

2012, Istanbul. 30th May 2012, ORPHEUS PhD workshop was held under the topic: Vision of ORPHEUS in PhD Education: Towards European Standards, at Marmara University, Istanbul

  • The main organizer was Professor Feyza Aricioglu, head of Marmara University Institute of Health Sciences and there were about 40 participants from Marmara but also otherUniversities inIstanbul, in total 100 participants. Invited guests were Professor Gul Guner, ORPEHUS EC member and Professor Zdravko Lackovic ORPHEUS President.

2012, Karachi. 11th July 2012, PhD symposium Karachi, Pakistan

  • The PhD symposium  and workshops were organized in Karachi, Pakistan as a part of BioCon:  celebration of anniversary of Department of Biochemistry University of Karachi. Whole event was supported by  International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology  (IUBMB).  Main organizer was professor Nikhat Ahmed Siddiqui, chair of Biochemistry. Invited speakers were Gül Güner, Zdravko Lacković, Angel Herráez and Nessar Ahmed who presented experience with PhD program especially IUBMB standards and ORPHEUS standards. Event was attended by about 80 participants fro,different departments and universities but mostly by PhD candidates from Karachi university.

2012, Lyon. 25th-29th August 2012, Workshop: “Towards Global Standards for PhD Programmes in Medical Education”, AMEE, Lyon

  • 10:30-12:15 This workshop discussed the possibility of developing international standards for PhD education, with inputs from Australia, Canada, India and USA together with discussion of the situation in Europe.Chairmen: Jadwiga Mirecka, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; Michael Mulvany, University of Aarhus, Denmark
    • Zdravko Lackovic, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, President ORPHEUS. Globalization of PhD standards. (15 min)
    • Michael Mulvany, University of Aarhus. Vice-president ORPHEUS.  The ORPHEUS/AMSE/WFME standards (15 min)
    • Joey Barnett, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Education secretary ASPET. PhD programmes in the USA. Recorded video link. (10 min)
    • Arunabha Ray, University of Delhi. PhD programmes in India. Recorded video link. (10 min)
    • Ian Van Driel, University of Melbourne, PhD programmes in Australia. Slides presented by Michael Mulvany. (10 min)
    • Susan Porter, University of British Columbia. PhD programmes in Canada. Recorded video link. (10 min)
    • Discussion. On-line Video link with Joey Barnett, Arunabha Ray, Susan Porter.(30 min)
    • Stefan Lindgren, University of Lund, President WFME. Closing remarks. (5 min)

2012, Manchester. 3th-27th February 2012, EMTRAIN Workshop for PhD students was held in Manchester

  • Presentation of ORPHEUS/AMSE/WFME standards in plenary sessions was done by M Mulvany

2012, Martin. 11th-13th October 2012, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University (CU), University of Martin, Slovakia organized ORPHEUS Workshop: “PhD Study from the Student’s View”.

2012, Melbourne. 28th September 2012, PhD workshop, Monash University, Melbourne

  • Monash University is about to introduce the “New Monash PhD” where 200 hours are set aside for activities not directly related to the PhD research project. These activities could include courses, particularly in generic skills, participation in conferences, etc. This workshop discussed how this programme was to be introduced.Friday September 28th, 2012. 10:00-16:00. The workshop discussed the plans at Monash University to include 200 hours in PhD programmes for training in generic skills.
    • Professor Michael Mulvany (Aarhus University, Denmark & ORPHEUS Executive Committee member) European vision in PhD education and ORPHEUS standards
    • Dr John Morrison (Director, Research Translation, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University) Towards a 21st C PhD Program
    • Professor Rodney Devenish (Deputy Director, Monash University Institute of Graduate Research) The new Monash PhD Program
    • Associate Professor Philip Thompson (Associate Dean (Research Training), Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University) Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences PhD Program
    • Associate Professor Sharon Ricardo (Director, MBio Graduate School, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University) MBio Graduate School, PhD milestones
    • Professor Michael Vitale (Director, Monash Asia-Pacific Centre for Science and Wealth Creation, Monash University) Gloom awaits our best and brightest?
    • Dr David Reser (Department of Physiology, Monash University) What does industry want/need from our postgraduates?
    • Dr Leigh Farrell (Vice President Business Development, Biota Holdings Limited)Industry needs & PhD training

    Participant list

    • Professor Michael Mulvany (Aarhus University, Denmark)
    • Professor John Carroll (Head, School of Biomedical Sciences)
    • Professor Rod Devenish (Deputy Director, Monash Institute of Graduate Research)
    • Ms Carole Morrow (HDR Programs & Graduate Support Manager, Monash Institute of Graduate Research)
    • Professor Peter Little (Head of Pharmacy, RMIT)
    • Dr Wee-Ming Boon (Fellowships, NHMRC)
    • Associate Professor Sharon Ricardo (Director, MBio Graduate School & HDR Coordinator, Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories)
    • Dr Harry Coleman (Department of Physiology, Monash University)
    • Associate Professor Martin Stone (HDR Coordinator, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)
    • Ms Jane McCausland (HDR Coordinator, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute)
    • Dr Michal Schneider-Kolsky (HDR Co-ordinator, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences)
    • Dr Shae Cox (Senior Project Manager, MBio Graduate School)
    • Dr Priscilla Johanesen (Project Officer, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences)
    • Associate Professor Philip Thompson (Associate Dean (Research Training), Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences)
    • Professor Michael Vitale ((Director, Monash Asia-Pacific Centre for Science and Wealth Creation)
    • Dr David Reser (Department of Physiology)
    • Dr John Morrison (Director, Research Translation, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences)
    • Dr Leigh Farrell (Vice President Business Development, Biota Holdings Limited)

2012, Melbourne. 4th October 2012, PhD workshop, University of Melbourne

  • This workshop drew together Heads of graduate programmes at Melbourne University where in particular the question of the employability of PhD graduates was discussed.
    • Dr Leigh Farrell (Vice President Business Development, Biota Holdings Limited)
    • Prof Michael Mulvany. Vice-president ORPHEUS (Organisation of PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in the European System) Aarhus University, Denmark
    • Prof Dick Strugnell. PVC Graduate Research, University of Melbourne. “Best Practice Framework for Research Training in Australia”
    • Prof Gillian Wigglesworth, Associate Dean Research, Faculty of Arts. “Quality and Employability of the PhD, a HASS perspective”
    • Prof Ian van Driel, Associate Dean, Melbourne School of Graduate Research, Associate Dean Research Training, MDHS. “Graduate Destinations”

2012, Stockholm. 23rd-27th September 2012, Doctoral week, EUA Doctoral Week: Global perspectives, Karolinska Institute

  • CODOC, EUA-CDE, ARDE (ZL,MM). Zdravko Lackovic and Michael Mulvany represented ORPHEUS. Zdravko Lackovic gave a talk.

2012, Wurzburg. 19th-22nd January 2012, DAAD project supported international workshop on PhD program, Wurzburg

  • Participants from Germany, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (all medical schools) and Macedonia. Organized by Jürgen Deckert and Zdravko Lackovic. Presenter Z. Lackovic.

2012, Zagreb. 25th May 2012, University of Zagreb School of Medicine hosted the first PhD Day

  • University of Zagreb School of Medicine hosted the first PhD Day organized by the PhD Programme Biomedicine and Health Sciences. From this year on, PhD Day will be a mandatory part of the course load for PhD candidates of that programme, intended to reduce the workload and reorganize the classes of doctoral studies in order to make them more effective and directly helpful in thesis development. During this daylong event, the PhD candidates had the opportunity to present the research related to their doctoral theses to their colleagues, prominent scientists and broad scientific community in the form of poster presentations and publication of abstracts. The event included oral presentations of the best abstracts, invited lectures by distinguished scholars and the research excellence lecture by Professor Roland Jonsson of the University of Bergen as well as the round table panel discussing the doctoral studies in Croatia and Europe with participation of Zdravko Lackovic and Robert Likic (University of Zagreb School of Medicine), Ignac Lovrek (University of Zagreb), Roland Jonsson (University of Bergen) and Jadwiga Mirecka (Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow), while Michael Mulvany (University of Aarhus) and Ingeborg Van Der Ploeg (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm) participated in the panel via live webcast. This was the first such event in Croatia, visited by numerous representatives of the University of Zagreb and other institutions of higher education and science. Similar manifestations are traditionally organized by some prominent establishments of higher education across Europe.  It could be expected that similar  events will be soon organised by other PhD programmes in Zagreb and Croatia.

2011, Athens. 12th March 2011, HELLENIC SOCIETY OF PHARMACOLOGY

  • Michel J Mulvany gave the EPHAR lecture at the 10th National Meeting of the Hellenic Society of Pharmacology in Athens 12 March 2011 with title “Standards for PhD Education: Why, What and How?”, where the ORPHEUS position paper was presented.

2011, Brussels. 22nd September 2011, European Commission colloquium, Brussels

  • M. Mulvanyrepresented ORPHEUS in discussion of PhD standards.

2011, Budapest. 20th-21st January 2011, EUA-CDE WORKSHOP IN BUDAPEST

  • Michel J Mulvany participated an EUA-CDE workshop in Budapest, 20-21 Januar 2011 on “Mobility and Collaboration – international and inter-sectoral” and gave a talk on “Mobility and Collaboration”, a summary of the ORPHEUS 2010 consensus paper.


  • Zdravko Lackovic, Chris Schravendijk and Michel J Mulvany took part in a workshop organized by Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf on “Doctoral Education in Health Sciences“ 5 July 2010,where ORPHEUS and the position paper were presented. The ORPHEUS standards were discussed in the light of German procedures.

2011, Helsinki. 17th-18th October 2011, EMTRAIN meeting, Helsinki

  • Presentation of ORPHEUS standards in plenary session by M. Mulvane, Actively present Z. Lackovic and Andre Nieoullon.

2011, Leioa. 28th November 2011, ORPHEUS Spain Workshop

  • IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF PHD STUDIES IN BIOMEDICINE THROUGH INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION  was held at University of the Basque Country, Faculty of Medicine, Leioa, Spain.Organisation Lusi Martinez Millan. Participants: Jadwiga Mirecka and Zdravko Lackovic

2011, Ljublijana. 16th-18th June 2011, AMSE Conference, Ljubljana

  • AMSE Conference was held in Ljubljana. The subject was “The staff of the medical school – challenges and opportunities”.  Zdravko Lackovic and Michael Mulvany were present. M. Mulvany presented ORPHEUS standards in plenary session.a

2011, London. 15th April 2011, BRITISH PHARMACOLOGICAL SOCIETY

  • Zdravko Lackovic and Michel J Mulvany took part in a workshop organized by the British Pharmacological Society: “PhD standards in Pharmacology”, London, 15 April 2011.ORPHEUS and the position paper were presented. The ORPHEUS standards were discussed in the light of British procedures.a

2011, Madrid. 8th-11th June 2011, EUA-CDE, Madrid

  • EUA-CDE meeting was held in Madrid. Michel Mulvany presented ORPHEUS standards in plenary session.a

2011, Torino. 26th-27th June 2011, FEBS meeting, Torino

  • Gul Guner and Michel Mulvany were present. M. Mulvany presented European PhD training on behalf of chairman of EUA-CDE.

2011, Vienna. 28th-31st June 2011, AMEE, Vienna

  • workshop on PhD standards was organized. Panellists Jadwiga Mirecka, Chris van Schravendijk, Michel Mulvany and Zdravko Lackovi


  • Medical School University of Belgrade organized symposium: “Current trends in organisation of PhD programs in Medical Science”. Invited speakers were zdravko Lackovic, Chris Van Schravendijk and David Gordon.

2010, Berlin. 10th-12th June 2010, The AMSE Conference in 2010 was held in Berlin

  • The AMSE (Association of Medical Schools in Europe) Conference in 2010 was held in Berlin, Germany, on 10-12 June. This was part of the celebrations of the 300 year anniversary of the Charite. The subject was “Internationalisation of Medical Schools”. ORPHEUS President (also member of AMSE EC) presented a lecture “The outcome of the Vienna ORPHEUS conference on Cooperation and Networking in PhD Education”.

2010, Brussels. 9th June 2010, ORPHEUS AT EMTRAIN PROJECT MEETING

  • ORPHEUS President was nominated a member of advisory board of EMTRAIN Project. In Brussels he presented ORPHEUS at EMTRAIN WP2 Project meeting. Another Advisory Committee meeting was held in Barcelona 19-20th October 2010. On both meetings dozen of ORPHEUS booklets were distributed.


  • University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” from Cluj Napoca (Romania) organized National Conference: “Comprehensive PhD Programs in Biomedical Sciences; steps toward better training and higher scientific performances of young researchers”. Conference was sponsored by ORPHEUS. Zdravko Lackovic was key note speaker with a lecture: “The need for international evaluation of PhD programs: the role of ORPHEUS”.


  • Michel J Mulvany organized a PhD workshop at the 16th World Congress of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Copehagen, Denmark.The title of the workshop was “Standards for PhD Education in Pharmacology” with participation of Zdravko Lackovic and Michel J Mulvany. ORPHEUS and the position paper were presented in front of about 100 participants. Other lecturers included Nicolas Goulding (UK), Joey Barnett (USA) and Hakan S Orer (Turkey).

2010, Hamburg. 14th-15th December 2010, EUROPEAN SCIENCE FOUNDATION MEETING

  • Zdravko Lackovic and David Gordon were invited to Hamburg to participate in European Science Foundation EMRC meeting releated to posssible ESF project Medical Research in Europe. Z. Lackovic presented activities of ORPHEUS and offer possibilities for collaboration in any aspect of possible project.


  • Bologna seminar on Doctoral Studies in the EHEA, took place in Warsaw,. The ORPHEUS was presented by prof. J. Mirecka, member of ORPHEUS Executive Committee, where she took the floor and informed broadly all delegates about the ORPHEUS activities, conferences and workshops.

2009, Zagreb. 4th-6th June 2009, AMSE conference, Zagreb

  • Tthe AMSE Conference was held in Zagreb, Croatia, from 4–6 June 2009. The subject of the Conference was : “The Medical School and Postgraduate Education – Responsibility for clinical, specialist and research education”



  • International Workshop of PhD Study was organized by Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Martin, with support of European Social Fund Project and in collaboration with ORPHEUS (Organization for PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in the European System). The workshop took place at Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Martin from October 5th to 7th, 2008.



    The participants of the International Workshop on PhD Study, after presentations, discussions and exchange of ideas and experiences, have concluded and agreed on the following:
    1) PhD programmes as the third cycle of high education according to Bologna process is an organic part of the Medical and Health Sciences education in preclinical as well as in clinical disciplines and other medicine related disciplines. PhD programmes in Medicine and Health Sciences are specific in their mission of the study and in the final target: Human Being.
    2) The participants have agreed with criteria for a†PhD education in Medical and Health Sciences as are well specified in the ORPHEUS documents (The Zagreb Declaration, 2004, Helsinki Consensus, 2007, etc.).
    3) For PhD education in the Medical and Health Science disciplines, like in other fields, research is the basis for the successful study. For research in medical disciplines is a†necessity of the collaboration with other specialists – biophysists, biochemists, biomedical engineers, mathematicians, physicians, as well as laboratorians, etc.
    4) Education in PhD clinical programmes has many specific features – integration of† theoretical, preclinical and clinical knowledge, human subjects as an object of the research and starting with development of clinical skills taking latter to the specialization study.
    5) During the education in PhD clinical programmes is recommended close cooperation between clinical and theoretical disciplines. This cooperation is essentiall and useful for participants in the research and beneficial to PhD student.
    6) Participants have agreed with statement that research work of undergraduate students is a good basis for a†consecutive PhD study; it is recommended to support this work.
    7) Results accentuated the crucial role of the tutors/supervisors in quality of the PhD education and in the combined PhD and specialization educations.
    8) Unchangeable role in PhD education, in exchange of scientific results, widening contacts among related universities and faculties have conferences of PhD students. Participants have recommended to organize the conferences with participation of† representatives of other faculties and on the international level.
    9) PhD students – as active participants in PhD programmes – they should have opportunity to participate in the decission making process regarding PhD study. It is recommended to start discussion with the aims to improve their social status, financial support, and to define appropriate ratio between time dedicated to the research work and to clinical practice of PhD candidates in clinical disciplines.

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